In the digital economy era, almost all enterprises are embracing cloud computing.Big to IT manufacturing factories, small to domestic service companies, “enterprise cloud” has become the main battlefield of the transformation and upgrading of all walks of life.But the public cloud, which provides infrastructure services, is a game only the best can play.Experienced several rounds of war, the market share continues to focus on the head, BATH (Ali, Tencent, Baidu, Huawei) as the representative of the four giants, with long-term technology accumulation and market deep cultivation, smoothly into the industry pyramid at the top.As of the second quarter of last year, the top four cloud infrastructure companies in China were Alibaba Cloud (33.8 percent), Huawei Cloud (19.3 percent), Tencent Cloud (18.8 percent) and Baidu Intelligent Cloud (7.8 percent), according to a report by Canalys, a well-known market research firm.It is worth mentioning that the four companies together increased to 79.7% from 78.7% in the same period in 2020, continuing to eat into the remaining market share.On the other side of the coin, small and medium-sized cloud computing companies are leaving the scene.Early last year, suning and Meituan, both Internet giants, had to announce their withdrawal from the cloud service market after years of technology struggles.Visible, cloud computing this cake, to be far more difficult to chew than imagined much.Under oligarchic pattern, all aspects of our production and life in the future will be covered by a few “flowers” clouds.At the same time, as the cloud computing industry is still in its early stages of development, the current fragmentation situation is not static, and the story of horse racing will continue./ 01 / Cloud computing market chaos “BATH” pattern at the beginning of the “Matthew effect” is a platitudes of the topic, in the business world, “strong ever strong” story is happening every day.However, it is clear that the Matthew effect is further amplified in cloud computing, where technology input is required to be higher and industrial chains are more complex.At present, China’s cloud market is no longer the old pattern of the strong eating meat and the weak eating soup, but presents a more brutal “T” structure: BATH controls the absolute discourse power of the industry, and the second tier of cloud computing manufacturers have been difficult to establish space.From the development track of “Four Clouds”, because each is attached to different business systems, the focus of power is not the same, so they have different styles on the way of “cloud”.But generally speaking, the eight immortals have crossed the sea and come to the same destination, and in each cloud, you can see many traces of each company in the Internet era.The first is Alibaba, the Internet giant that has dominated e-commerce for years and is the pioneer and evangelist of China’s cloud computing era.In 2009, when the whole China does not know what cloud is, Ali Cloud has written the first line of cloud computing core technology code “Flying”.More than a decade later, Aliyun blossomed, crushing competitors with a market share of nearly 40 percent.In fact, the success of Ali Cloud can be traced. Just like amazon AWS, the world’s largest cloud service platform, Alibaba’s unique e-commerce gene and natural advantages of B-end services on the one hand cause the platform’s strong demand for “cloud”, on the other hand, also enable it to quickly achieve commercialization.In contrast, Tencent Cloud’s entry into the game does not have the urgency of Ali Cloud “IOE”, so the group chairman Ma Huateng once thought that this concept is too advanced.However, as an Internet giant, Tencent’s “cloud” node is not late, as early as 2009, QQ Farm game hot brought strong data demand, initially laid the embryonic form of Tencent cloud service thinking;In 2015, Tencent’s cloud computing business was officially and fully opened to its partners, with a year-on-year growth of over 100%.Since then, Tencent’s cloud has remained China’s no. 2 market share until last year, when it was overtaken by Huawei Cloud.As huawei outside the Internet BAT camp, it established a cloud computing company in 2005. However, as the domestic cloud computing market has not yet emerged, Huawei Cloud, which is committed to infrastructure services, develops slowly.In 2017, Huawei established Cloud BU, a Cloud business department, to enter the public Cloud market with a high profile.In the following four years, Huawei Cloud became one of the most popular cloud computing companies in China, surpassing Jinshan Cloud, Tianyi Cloud and Tencent Cloud.In recent years, doubts about “Baidu falling behind BAT” have been emerging in the Internet circle, and in the field of Cloud computing, Baidu is also somewhat “belatedly aware”, because it was not until 2016, Baidu president Zhang Yaqin proposed the “ABC (AI, Big Data, Cloud) strategy”, the company formally established the core position of Baidu Cloud.But thanks to Baidu’s traditional AI prowess, its cloud computing business has grown by leaps and bounds in recent years and is now in fourth place with 8.4% of the market.Revenue grew 71 per cent year on year, outpacing the industry’s growth rate.In the face of market decline, Baidu intelligent cloud to achieve the curve overtaking, become the industry’s most easily underestimated “a cloud”./ 02 / Barrier Alienation Each company has its own “assassin’s mace” to take a closer look at the trajectory of the four giants on the cloud. At the beginning, they all opened up the advanced technology and mature fields of the platform, and then built their own barriers that could not be shaken.Therefore, although BATH ranked first in the cloud computing market, but specific to the segmentation of the field, each has a killer card to dominate the industry.For Ali Cloud, the most powerful competitiveness comes from its accumulation of deep cultivation of technology and practical ability.Under the leadership of Wang Jian’s team, Ali Cloud has created a complete software and hardware technology system from the operating system “Flying” to the chip “relying on heaven”, with the largest investment in human and financial resources and therefore the largest return.In particular, relying on the huge ecological resources of Ali economy, Ali Cloud has unique advantages in providing accurate empowerment for the majority of small and medium-sized enterprises, especially e-commerce customers.During last year’s singles’ Day, all of Alibaba’s businesses were already running on Aliyun.The company revealed that through cloud technology innovation, the platform data center computing power has been more reasonable configuration, DpCA server architecture and self-developed PolarDB database to improve the efficiency of server resource use, reduce the cost of computing;The 290,000 merchants who participated in the event did well, including Chinese time-honored brands, new brands and international brands.Public information shows that in 2018, Alibaba cloud computing business covered 80% of the country’s technology companies;In 2020, 60% of a-share listed companies became aliyun customers;In 2021, Alibaba Cloud won the cooperation of nearly half of the world’s top 500 enterprises.It is worth mentioning that, due to the high cost of cross-cloud data migration, once customers choose Ali Cloud, it means that they will maintain stable loyalty in a long time, which is of deeper significance for the platform to exert brand effect and maintain market control.Tencent cloud barriers, built in the group of companies for a long time the ecological resources.Although technology reserves and research and development capabilities are slightly inferior to Ali Cloud, Tencent Cloud is “invincible” in the field of social and entertainment, especially in the segmented games and audio and video, Tencent Cloud has almost achieved market monopoly.In addition, due to the strong rise of wechat Pay, Tencent cloud rapid layout in the field of financial technology, into the head.Tencent cloud provides technical support for sandbox game “Mini World”Cloud website of tencent), shortly before the fire through the entire network “hero alliance” S11 finals, for example, the global sports event, in reykjavik, Iceland need through the transmission line to North America, first came to China again across more than 10000 kilometers of the Pacific audience’s screen, and S11 finals tencent cloud providers of cloud services.It is understood that based on the global coverage of 68 available areas and more than 2800 acceleration nodes, Tencent Cloud can easily meet the challenge of trans-ocean transmission, reduce the picture delay by more than 50%, to less than 400 milliseconds.In addition, Tencent Cloud also provides technical support for B station, Douyu, Huya, Penguin e-sports and other platforms, carrying 90% of the traffic of the whole network.According to Tencent’s Q3 financial report, Tencent cloud has served more than 90% of domestic audio and video companies, more than 80% of head game companies and the vast majority of e-commerce platforms, with customers covering various segments such as banking, insurance, securities, consumer finance and industrial finance.Moreover, TDSQL, Tencent’s cloud database, serves nearly half of China’s TOP20 banks, among which the top 10 banks account for six.Huawei has always been known as the benchmark of domestic technology enterprises. It has accumulated 30 years of technology in the FIELD of ICT infrastructure, and mainly faces traditional government and enterprise customers. Therefore, Huawei Cloud can hardly meet its rivals in the TOG market.According to the report “China Government Cloud Infrastructure Market Share 2020” released by IDC, Huawei cloud occupies 32.2% of China’s government cloud infrastructure market, ranking first for four consecutive years.In June last year, Huawei cloud and the relevant departments of Changsha city jointly established a new smart city government cloud benchmarking laboratory, boosting the intelligent upgrade of Changsha city industry, changsha city government cloud achievements display window.At present, Changsha government cloud has achieved intelligent governance – government blockchain, people’s benefit service – my Changsha APP, industrial economy – digital RMB red envelope, ecological livable – intelligent environmental protection and other applications.What is more noteworthy is that with the comprehensive promotion of 5G, Huawei Cloud has become the first cloud service platform integrating “5G+ cloud +AI”.The “fusion effect” produced by technology fusion is likely to detonate the industrial Internet in the future, which is a unique advantage that other Internet cloud manufacturers do not have.Baidu’s label is “AI”, but in the cloud computing market, it becomes “Baidu Intelligent cloud”.To differentiate itself, Baidu’s cloud services integrate AI computing power, algorithms and open platforms, using AI technology to help companies build competitive advantages and digital transformation.At present, Baidu intelligent cloud in image and video, intelligent manufacturing, intelligent transportation and other advantages, in human face recognition, NLP and other segmented areas of the market is to establish a high barrier.In the second quarter of last year, Baidu Intelligent Cloud began to provide AI solutions based on private cloud for Geely Auto, which helped the revenue of cloud computing business achieve a year-on-year growth rate of 71%.In the second quarter, the company successively won the bidding of autonomous driving and car-road cooperation projects in Shaoxing, Cangzhou, Yangquan and other places, with a single order amount of about 150 million yuan, effectively promoting the development of big data industry in relevant areas.According to the report “China AI Cloud Service Market 2020 Annual Research” released by IDC, Baidu Intelligent Cloud takes the lead in creating AI native cloud computing architecture in the industry, becoming “a natural cloud suitable for RUNNING AI”. In 2020, the platform ranks first in the overall MARKET of AI public cloud services, and its AI applications blossom in an all-round way, realizing multi-industry landing./ 03 / What is the new story of the “Four Clouds” behind the architecture upgrade?In the world of cloud computing, there are no closed doors or isolated corners.Although the four giants have built super-high moats in their respective fields, the focus of competition in the industry has shifted from infrastructure construction to the application layer, and is constantly penetrating into more segmented industries.For the giants, on the one hand, they need to continuously evolve horizontally on the basis of their own barriers and enter each other’s territory.On the other hand, a large-scale restructuring of the structure has begun to tell a new business story.In September 2020, Alibaba integrated Dingding team into Ali Cloud, officially landing the strategy of “One Cloud nail”.Among them, Ali Cloud acts as “hydropower and coal” to build cloud computing infrastructure base for enterprises;Dingding is similar to the Windows operating system and helps companies develop and use different applications.In essence, “Cloud Nails one” is a one-stop service that provides in-depth integration of IaaS (infrastructure services), Paas (platform services) and Saas (software services).It is conceivable that the SaaS service layer will become the most competitive area in the future as the “road building” phase of the cloud market ends.The implementation of the “cloud nail integrated” strategy is ali cloud card application layer in advance, the first to get the enterprise market “card war”.In September 2018, Tencent established cloud and Smart Industry Business Group (CSIG) to fully embrace industrial Internet.In May last year, CSIG announced a new round of structural upgrades, and proposed three strategies to root in the industry, deepen the region, and strengthen business collaboration: to root in the industry to build the most industry-aware combat force;Deep cultivation of the area, promoting digital subsidence;Improve operational efficiency by “strengthening the healthy operation of the overall platform and enhancing business synergy”.It is not difficult to see that this strategic upgrade, Tencent wants to continue to deepen into the industrial Internet field, to provide industry solutions more suitable for digital needs.To this end, Tang Daosheng, senior executive vice president of Tencent and CEO of cloud and intelligence Industry business Group, proposed the methodology of building user, technology, security and ecological engine, introducing user understanding and cutting-edge digital technology into the industry, creating a safe base in the era of industrial Internet, and continuously promoting the ecological opening of industrial Internet.In April last year, Huawei Cloud also underwent a large-scale structural adjustment. Cloud&AI BG, which was established at the end of 2018, was cancelled, and Huawei Cloud no longer had to bear revenue targets and returned to BU (business line).Cloud&AI BG mainly includes Cloud BU, computing product line (server, etc.), data storage and machine vision product line. It was established as huawei’s fourth BG (business group) in early 2020.Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei once said: Huawei cloud is not the leading advantage of traditional hardware devices, we must build the ability to sell cloud services and support the operation, operation and maintenance of cloud services for customers.Obviously, Huawei is trying to achieve light cloud business through organizational structure adjustment.After that, cloud business became an independent business line, no longer tied to servers, storage and other hardware, realizing the change of thinking from selling hardware to selling services.In 2020, Baidu intelligent cloud established the “cloud based, artificial intelligence as the starting point, focus on the important track” integrated cloud and intelligence strategy;In July last year, the platform announced a comprehensive upgrade of strategy, architecture, product and ecology, and launched “Cloud and Intelligence Integrated 2.0”, forming a new system with cloud as the base, deep learning platform “Flying paddle” as the core and ecology as the wing.For the new strategy, Baidu CTO Wang Haifeng make understanding read, “cloud integration of cloud and intelligence to provide a safe, stable, flexible digital base for digital transformation, ‘intelligent engine’ to provide leading innovation technology and platform for intelligent upgrading.”To sum up, it is to empower enterprises through the output of intelligent technology and practical experience.On the whole, the four giants keep making trial and error and forging ahead on the road of cloud computing, all of them want to have dividends in the digital transformation and upgrading of Chinese enterprises and build up strength for the comprehensive explosion of industrial Internet.With the acceleration of digitalization, cloud computing, as a potential incremental market, will be more competitive in the future.Node-finance statement: The content of this article is for reference only, the information in this article or the opinions expressed in this article do not constitute any investment advice, node-Finance does not accept any responsibility for any action taken in connection with the use of this article.